Tag Archives: Mary

Growing up with La Madonna

As we watched on TV the 13th-century Christian masterpiece of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris burn in surreal fashion on Holy Monday of Holy Week, it begged many questions. Was it a modern-day metaphor for the widespread wreckage of the faith? Or a burning parallel to contemporary trashing of Mary’s holy integrity through defacing her truths and images – or in so-called entertainment? Did it mimic the apparent collapse of longtime teachings and traditions of the Church, and of the Mass and sacraments?

Christine Valentine-Owsik

This charred iconic church, where faithful gathered under Mary’s patronage since the great Christian Renaissance, involved the toil of workers for centuries. Among priceless items saved were The Blessed Sacrament, Christ’s crown of thorns, the altar, Holy Cross, and others.

I would guess that what made many of those devoted workers in the 12th and 13th centuries give their lives to building and beautifying that great cathedral was not unlike the allegiance to Mary that many of us absorbed from our own devout lineage — especially parents and grandparents.

My first impression of Mary didn’t come through any formal instruction. It came from my Italian grandmother, whose name was Mary, an immigrant working as a Philadelphia garment-factory seamstress. A beautiful Madonna picture hung beside her basement sewing machine. As a child, I often walked with her several blocks to the parish church in West Philadelphia, still under construction as it had been for years (for lack of funds which begun during the Great Depression). She pointed out the precious Jesus, Mary, and Joseph statues, mosaics, and carvings – reminding me who they were, and telling me of the Italian towns and artists who produced them. The parish had an Italian priest, and she didn’t hesitate to gabble with him – hands waving, laughing, making requests, and blessing herself when we left. She did the sewing and repairing of their altar cloths, priests’ vestments, and nuns’ habits. Father usually had a huge bagful waiting for her. At the Italian butcher on the way home, he always greeted her as Bella Maria.

On warm nights after cooking and cleanup were done, she’d sit outside her cozy rowhouse, in her porch chair near the rose bush planted for Mary, and recite prayers in Italian – the rosary, prayers to the Holy Family, and to Mother Cabrini (of whom she was eminently proud as America’s first immigrant-saint). Her prayers were typically interrupted with “hellos” from neighbors walking by, and from the much-awaited street vendor, Tony’s huckster truck. We’d hear him coming almost a mile away, announcing his ‘specials’ via megaphone … baccala (salted codfish), tomatoes, and cucuzza (Italian summer squash, which we called “ca-GOOTZ”). She’d send me to the truck to get what she wanted, and I could see a Scotch-taped picture of La Madonna on the inside wall. At the time, I resented chasing Tony’s raucous food truck up the street for Italian stuff I thought no one else ate.

But those inspiring days – with so many infused lessons – live on as a great treasure.

La Madonna really lived among us.

CHRISTINE VALENTINE-OWSIK is Legatus magazine’s editor.

The song that God loves to hear

In 1983, there began a series of apparitions in Argentina to a simple, uneducated woman named Gladys Quiroga de Motta. As in so many other apparitions in this century, the rosary would be the central theme. From the start of the apparitions, Mary appeared to Gladys holding Baby Jesus in one arm and displaying a large rosary that stretched across both her hands. In the apparition of November 26, 1983, Mary expressed the desire to be known as “Our Lady of the Rosary of San Nicolás.” On the following day, Gladys visited the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Rosary in Rosario (a town near San Nicolás) and saw a statue of Our Lady that she claimed was an exact representation of what Mary looked like during the previous day’s apparition. Upon inquiring, Gladys was informed that this particular statue of Our Lady of the Rosary had been given to Argentina in 1884 by Pope Leo XIII for use in the cathedral of Rosario. At some point during construction of the cathedral, it had been placed in the bell tower and forgotten. Below is the account that Gladys gave regarding this episode:

For the first time, I saw a statue of the Virgin that is the same as what I see. It had been stored away at the cathedral. This image of Our Lady of the Rosary, that had been brought from Rome to San Nicolas 100 years ago, for the inauguration of the cathedral, [and was] blessed for that intention by Pope Leo XIII. Our Lady said to me: “They had me in oblivion, but I have reappeared; place me there [where Mary requested a shrine to be constructed] because you see me such as I am.”

In 1990, the local bishop gave his approval for the publication and distribution of the messages given to Gladys by Our Lady. There were no less than 1,800 messages! Even after the local bishop gave his approval for the spread of the messages, Gladys continued to have almost daily apparitions. …[She] requested the rosary be prayed every day, especially among families and in groups, and specifically asked that a perpetual novena of the rosary be undertaken by the local people…These apparitions were officially approved by the diocesan bishop on May 22, 2016.

… Mary described the rosary as a song that God loves to hear and a tie that binds us to our spiritual mother. Our Lady stressed that the rosary is so powerful that it can change the heart of anyone for the better [and] has the greatest influence in overcoming evil; every danger can be faced with the rosary…One of the most powerful messages Mary gave was on April 10, 1986 when she said: “The holy rosary is the weapon which the enemy fears. It is also the refuge of those who look for relief for their sufferings, and it is the door to enter into my heart.”

Excerpt from Champions of the Rosary: The History and Heroes of a Spiritual Weapon, by Donald H. Calloway, MIC (Stockbridge: Marian Press, 2016), pp. 150-51, “San Nicolás, Argentina (1983-1990).” www.frcalloway.com. Used with permission.

Modern-day prodigal son, FR. DONALD CALLOWAY, MIC, is a convert to Catholicism and a member of the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception. Prior to his conversion he was a school dropout and involved in crime. A prolific author on Mary and other faith topics, he is a popular speaker on the Divine Mercy, and has written seven books.

SAINTS, MYSTICS, AND VISIONARIES

“My impression is that the rosary is of greatest value not only according to the words of Our Lady at Fatima, but according to the effects of the rosary one sees throughout history. My impression is that Our Lady wanted to give ordinary people, who might not know how to pray, this simple method of getting closer to God.” Sister Lúcia of Fatima

Mary at the Rock’N’Bowl

John Blancher Sr. knew more about brokering crawfish than bowling when he took over New Orleans’ Mid-City Bowling Lanes in 1988, but he had a real pro for a partner in the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The father-and-son team of John and Johnny Blancher, members of Legatus’ New Orleans Chapter, pose for a photo at the Rock’n’Bowl.

On a pilgrimage earlier that year to Medjugorje, site of reported Marian apparitions, Blancher had petitioned Mary for help in finding a business that would enable him to better provide for his family. A week after his return to New Orleans, a friend asked if he wanted to buy a bowling alley.

“I said, ‘A bowling alley!?’ I had bowled, but never in a league. I didn’t know anything about bowling.”

Nor did he know that soon he would be transforming the struggling business into the Rock’n’Bowl, now one of New Orleans’ most popular night spots.

Help from above

Blancher, a member of Legatus’ New Orleans Chapter with his wife Deborah, took over the bowling alley on All Saints Day in 1988, thinking it might make a good party venue or a sports bar. “I didn’t know what I was going to do, but I really just went on faith and said, ‘If this is it, let me know.’”

He hung a picture of Our Lady of Medjugorje over the staircase and painted the place what he calls “Blessed Mother Blue.” Only Deborah knew that Mary had inspired the acquisition. Everyone else, he said, thought he was crazy.

“If I had told them the Blessed Mother wants me to do this, they really would have thought I was nuts.”

rocknbowl-maryDeborah believed otherwise. “I knew that Mary was very powerful, and if he thought that Mary told him to buy this bowling alley, I was all behind it.”

More than a month later on Dec. 8, the feast of the Immaculate Conception, Blancher’s application for a business loan was rejected. He went straight to Mary. “Blessed Mother,” he said, “this was not my idea. I only did it because I thought it was what you wanted me to do.”

Blancher says he somehow managed to keep things going. Deborah taught school during the day and helped at the bowling alley a few nights per week and on Sundays. A newspaper story generated more customers, and then the theater crowd discovered Mid-City as a place to dance to juke box music and bowl on Saturday nights.

“That was the first influx of fun-loving, celebrating people,” Blancher recalled. More stories appeared about people hanging out at a retro bowling alley. After adding live music on Friday nights, Blancher renamed Mid-City the Rock‘n’Bowl. “It was suddenly a sensation — almost the hottest music club in town.”

Divine Providence

The club’s growth didn’t stop, and neither did Blancher. With his prayers for his family answered, he was now thinking about the family’s future. His son Johnny and son-in-law Jimmy Hankins were working with him, but he knew the Rock‘n’Bowl wasn’t enough to sustain everyone long-term. When he heard that the owners of Ye Olde College Inn down the street wanted to sell, Blancher offered to buy the restaurant with plans to have his son and son-in-law run and eventually own it.

After the sale, in keeping with his devotion to Mary, Blancher searched for an image of her to hang in the restaurant, but could only find a depiction of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. When one of the former owners saw it, he told Blancher that he and his wife had made a novena to the Sacred Heart, asking for a buyer for their property. “On the ninth day of the novena is when you called,” he said.

Both businesses have since been consecrated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary with the help of Legatus chaplain Fr. Jim Wehner and the seminarians at Notre Dame Seminary. Father Wehner is rector of the seminary, which is across South Carrollton Avenue from the College Inn and Rock‘n’Bowl.

Although the College Inn has always been on South Carrollton, it wasn’t until four years after Hurricane Katrina that Rock‘n’Bowl moved there. The business had survived Katrina and was the first in its neighborhood to reopen at the original location after the storm. But as property became available near the College Inn in the wake of the hurricane, the Blanchers decided to relocate Rock‘n’Bowl to a site behind the restaurant. The College Inn, meanwhile, moved to another building on the property after the storm destroyed its original building.

“Now, we’re all on the same footprint across from the seminary, the archbishop’s home and archdiocesan headquarters,” said son Johnny Blancher, also a member of Legatus’ New Orleans Chapter. “It’s sort of a Catholic corridor down here. We couldn’t have planned it if we’d tried.”

“It may be coincidental,” added his father, “but when the Lord has a plan, you don’t always see the plan while it’s happening. When it’s all over, you recognize all the things that went into it.”

National phenomenon

"If I had told them the Blessed Mother wants me to do this, they really would have thought I was nuts ‘‘ John Blancher Sr.

“If I had told them the Blessed Mother wants me to do this, they really would have thought I was nuts ‘‘ John Blancher, Sr.

John Blancher said his faith in God’s providence extends to promoting the business. “In some kind of way, the magazines, the articles, they just come. I’m just a tool that the Blessed Mother uses occasionally to get her message out.”

In 1995, for example, a 19-page National Geographic article on New Orleans included an entire page about Blancher, his trip to Medjugorje and Mary’s influence on his business, spawning stories by other national media, including USA Today, Rolling Stone and the Today Show.

“All of a sudden, [Rock’n’Bowl] wasn’t a local phenomenon, but a national phenomenon and tourists started coming,” he said.

Even better, Blancher said, “Every story mentions the Blessed Mother. There’s no way it’s a coincidence. I’m trying to make this be a testament to her love and her power. I really don’t go out pursuing it. It just comes.”

Blancher, 63, also believes Mary and her Son saw him through a health crisis earlier this year. Despite what he called “almost legendary” endurance that was regularly demonstrated on the Rock‘n’Bowl dance floor, he began noticing a change in his heartbeat during exertion.

Knowing his father had had a heart attack and bypass surgery, he requested a cardiac evaluation, which revealed three major blockages. On June 1, the start of the month dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Blancher had triple-bypass surgery.

Johnny Blancher, who shares his father’s devotion to Mary and Jesus, said, “The Blessed Mother’s been good to our whole family. She’s kept us safe and healthy and, in some kind of way, we always end up through our trials and tribulations better than we were before. I attribute that to her and her Son.”

The Blanchers’ faith is evident in the way their business gives back to the Church. They often make Rock‘n’Bowl available for Catholic fundraisers, and on designated nights, give 20% of net College Inn sales to Catholic schools and other groups.

Father Wehner said Rock‘n’Bowl also is host for an evening of bowling and food for the incoming class of Notre Dame seminarians each year as well as for Legatus events. In addition, the Blanchers sponsor a nativity scene on the seminary campus each Christmas and have turned a piece of adjoining property owned by the Archdiocese of New Orleans into a spiritual greenspace where they maintain a vegetable garden for the restaurant and have placed Divine Mercy and Marian images, as well as the stations of the cross.

“I think what’s most important,” Fr. Wehner said, “is that as business leaders, they’re successful, but their faith is an inspiration for their success.”

JUDY ROBERTS is a Legatus magazine staff writer.

Learn more: RockNBowl.com

Feminine genius leads to Our Lady

Editor PATRICK NOVECOSKY writes that the Catholic Church has always elevated women . . .

Patrick Novecosky

Patrick Novecosky

Despite the cries of secularists that the Catholic Church keeps women down by not ordaining them to the priesthood, the exact opposite is true. The Church has always been a champion of the “feminine genius.”

The early Church recognized the pivotal role of Our Lady in salvation history. The Third Ecumenical Council in 431 was held in a church dedicated to Our Lady. Council Fathers condemned Nestorius who questioned the title of Mary as “Mother of God.” The Church went on to hail the “first disciple” under many titles, including Queen of Heaven and Earth. As the model for all Christians, she is the one who Revelation says will crush Satan.

But what about women in our day and age? There has been no greater champion of modern women than St. John Paul the Great, who was elected after decades of modern “feminism” wreaked havoc on our culture. He responded with the “Theology of the Body,” his first major teaching given during 129 Wednesday audiences from 1979 to 1984. The Theology of the Body is a response to certain distorted ideas fundamental to the sexual revolution.

Christ “assigns the dignity of every woman as a task to every man,” John Paul said at his general audience on Nov. 24, 1982, “and simultaneously … he also assigns to every woman the dignity of every man.”

He continued in 1988 with the apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem on the dignity of women. The letter advocates the complementary roles of men and women in line with the philosophy of new feminism. He went a step further with his 1995 Letter to Women in which he appealed to all states, nations, and institutional organizations to improve conditions of work and life for women around the world.

Tom Monaghan was intent on following John Paul’s lead when, in founding Legatus in 1987, he insisted that spouses (most of them women) be granted full membership in the organization. Over the years the number of female executive members has grown rapidly. More women have taken leadership positions at the chapter level and on Legatus’ board of governors. (Click here for a related story.)

Men and women are equal in dignity and worth, the Church teaches, but they’re also different on purpose as part of God’s plan for humanity. While the world seeks to keep women enslaved with contraception, abortion and other vices, we recognize women’s irreplaceable gifts. As John Paul II wrote: “The Church sees in Mary the highest expression of the ‘feminine genius’ and she finds in her a source of constant inspiration.”

PATRICK NOVECOSKY is Legatus magazine’s editor-in-chief.

The Mary month of May

Monsignor Connelly writes that Catholics have a host of reasons to celebrate in May . . .

Monsignor Chris Connelly

Monsignor Chris Connelly

May is an especially significant month. It’s a month that begs us to recall so many aspects of our nation, our culture and our faith that we hold dear.

Memorial Day prompts all Americans to recall with gratitude the military personnel and others who have secured for this nation the irreplaceable treasures of freedom and peace. Mothers Day annually provides the opportunity to be particularly mindful of women who have shared the precious gift of life, as living mothers are honored and the deceased are prayerfully remembered.

In the Church, the Marian month is often a time for youngsters to receive First Holy Communion, a popular month also to celebrate marriage and other worthy moments in the sacramental life.

We recall and commemorate the saints of the Church on particular solemnities and feast days throughout the liturgical year, and May is no exception. In addition to Our Lady who is especially honored, many holy ancestors in the Catholic faith are highlighted. To review a few:

May 1: Saint Joseph the Worker. May 2: St. Athanasius, bishop and Doctor of the Church. May 3: Sts. Philip and James, apostles. May 10: St. Damien de Veuster of Molokai, priest. May 13: Our Lady of Fatima. May 14: St. Matthias, apostle. May 15: St. Isidore the farmer. May 18: St. John I, pope and martyr. May 20: St. Bernardine of Siena, priest. May 22: St. Rita of Cascia, religious. May 25: St. Bede the Venerable, priest and Doctor of the Church. May 25: St. Gregory VII, pope and St. Mary Magdalene de’Pazzi, virgin. May 26: St. Philip Neri, priest. May 27: St. Augustine of Canterbury, bishop. May 31: Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

All the holy men and women of May and the entire communion of saints point the way to Jesus Christ and, from their place in heaven, forever inspire the faithful. It’s providential that a month traditionally dedicated to the Blessed Mother begins with St. Joseph and draws to completion on the Feast of the Visitation.

Consider Mary’s prayer: “My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord, and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior.” Of this initial line of the Magnificat, St. Bede offered in a homily, “With these words Mary first acknowledges the special gifts she has been given. Then she recalls God’s universal favors, bestowed unceasingly on the human race.”

Mary’s prayer encourages all who endeavor to grow in faith to be mindful of the favors, the gifts that God lavishly provides. When Mary, the Immaculate handmaid of the Lord, said “yes” to the message of the archangel, she followed the One who bestows universal favors, and the human race would never, ever be the same. Mary trusted in the will of God to the fullest measure: “Blessed are you Mary because you believed that the Lord’s words to you would be fulfilled.”

The Catechism of the Catholic Church, citing the teaching from Lumen Gentium, notes, “Thus, giving her consent to God’s word, Mary becomes the mother of Jesus. Espousing the divine will for salvation wholeheartedly, without a single sin to restrain her, she gave herself entirely to the person and to the work of her Son; she did so in order to serve the mystery of redemption with him and dependent on him, by God’s grace” (#494).

Men and women of Legatus, and all who hold the Catholic Church dear, have reason to rejoice in this month of May, with Mary and all the holy ones. Striving daily to fulfill the Pauline mandate to become ambassadors for Christ, Legates rely not on any human power, rather on faith, ever mindful of the power and greatness of God alone.

Saint Bede concluded his reflection on Mary by encouraging all humanity, “When a man devotes all his thoughts to the praise and service of the Lord, he proclaims God’s greatness. His observance of God’s commands, moreover, shows that he has God’s power and greatness always at heart. His spirit rejoices in God his savior and delights in the mere recollection of his creator who gives him hope for eternal salvation.”

MONSIGNOR CHRISTOPHER D. CONNELLY is the chaplain of Legatus’ Western Massachusetts Chapter and vicar general of the Diocese of Springfield, Mass.

Was Mary perfect?

Mary could have decided not to participate in God’s divine plan, but she didn’t . . .

Fr. John Trigilio

The quality of perfection in Mary centers on the theological fact that she is the mother of God. The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary teaches that she was preserved from original sin from the first moment of her conception in the womb of St. Ann.

This preservation is an attribute of perfection. Think of a stained glass window. There are many pieces of colored glass that come together to form a magnificent picture. Salvation is like a stained glass window. There are many pieces of doctrine that come together  to form our salvific history. Mary is the daughter of God, our heavenly Father, mother of Jesus, and spouse of the Holy Spirit. She is central in the plan of salvation. Therefore, God perfected her like no other in creation.

Being preserved from original sin means she did not have to suffer the consequences of sin—namely death. However, the perfections of Mary in no way obliterated her free will. Throughout her life, Mary always made a free will act of love and obedience to God. In the Annunciation, the Archangel Gabriel announced God’s plan for Mary to become the mother of God. Mary questioned the Archangel, “How can this be since I do not know man?” Then the Archangel responded by saying that the conception of Jesus would be of divine origin; in other words, the Holy Spirit would overshadow her. Mary responded, “Yes, Thy will be done.”

This simple response is a powerful testimony to the perfection of Mary’s spiritual life. Indeed, God endowed Mary with many special privileges, graces and attributes because she was to be the mother of God; however, it was her humility and obedience to the Father that is the hallmark testimony of her faith.

She could have said no. She could have decided not to participate in God’s divine plan and done her own thing. Yet she did the opposite; she united her will to God’s will: “Not my will, but Thy will be done.” In her humble obedience, not only did she exalt women and motherhood, but she also expounded by her example what it means to be a follower of Jesus.

The disobedience of Adam and Eve brought us into the mess of sin, and it was the obedience of the new Eve (Mary) and the new Adam (Jesus) that brought about redemption and salvation. This perfection of Mary is an example for any faithful follower of her Son to practice: “Not my will, but Thy will be done.”

Reprinted with permission from The Catholicism Answer Book: The 300 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Rev. John Trigilio Jr. and Rev. Kenneth D. Brighenti (Sourcebooks, 2007).


Catechism 101

But while, in the most Blessed Virgin, the Church has already reached that perfection whereby she exists without spot or wrinkle, the faithful still strive to conquer sin and increase in holiness. And so they turn their eyes to Mary: in her, the Church is already the “all-holy.”

Catechism of the Catholic Church, #829

Through the centuries the Church has become ever more aware that Mary, “full of grace” through God, was redeemed from the moment of her conception. That is what the dogma of the Immaculate Conception confesses, as Pope Pius IX proclaimed in 1854: “The most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved immune from all stain of original sin.”

Catechism of the Catholic Church, #491

Mediatrix & Coredemptrix?

Judy Roberts writes about the growing movement for a possible fifth Marian dogma . . .

The Catholic Church’s four key teachings about the Blessed Virgin were the instruments that drew Dr. Richard Russell to convert from Protestantism. Now the Georgetown University professor would like the Church to proclaim a fifth Marian dogma declaring Mary “Coredemptrix.”

This fifth dogma — a solemn definition of Mary as spiritual mother of all peoples: Coredemptrix, Advocate, and Mediatrix of all graces — is a cause for which hundreds of Catholics around the world are currently praying in a year-long rosary campaign that began on the feast of the Assumption last year.

Universal appeal

Dr. Richard Russell

The new dogma is also the subject of petitions — many initiated by bishops and cardinals — that continue to flood the Vatican from five continents. Last year, in the first call for the proclamation from a head of state, then-Filipino president Gloria Arroyo wrote Pope Benedict XVI a letter asking for the fifth dogma on behalf of her people.

Appeals for the new dogma date to the 1920s and the efforts of Belgian Cardinal Desire-Joseph Mercier, an ecumenical leader who championed the cause with support from St. Maximilian Kolbe.

Russell, an adjunct professor of security studies who has been researching the approved Lady of All Nations prophecies in Amsterdam, acknowledged that the term “coredemptrix” sounds startling on first hearing. “But when you work through it,” he said, “it actually makes a great deal of sense.

“If Mary doesn’t say ‘yes’ at the time of the Annunciation, no blood is shed on Calvary,” he explained. “By pure force of logic, it has to be true. You cannot escape that she coredeems humanity. If she says ‘no,’ there is no redemption.” The Catholic Church has approved four Marian dogmas: that Mary is the Mother of God, conceived without sin, perpetually a virgin and assumed into heaven. Those who object to adding “coredemptrix” to her list of titles claim that it would wrongly place Christ’s mother on an equal plane with her son.

But Dr. Mark Miravalle, professor of theology at Franciscan University of Steubenville in Ohio, a leading proponent of the fifth dogma, said the term does not indicate equality with Christ — nor does it displace Him as redeemer of the world, deem Mary a goddess or declare her a fourth person of the Trinity.

Dr. Mark Miravalle

“The title ‘coredemptrix’ as used by popes, saints, mystics and the Magisterium,” Miravalle said, “denotes Our Lady’s unique participation in redemption. In no sense does it denote equality with God. As such, it would be heresy.”Mary participated in human redemption, he explained, in the way that St. Paul says Christians are “co-workers” with God (1 Cor 3:9).

Historical significance

In 1933, Pope Pius XI became the first pope to use the title “coredemptrix” in a papal address. Blessed John Paul II used it six times, although other popes — including Leo XIII and Pius XII — have supported the doctrine in their writings. Leo XIII, for example, taught in Iucunda Semper Expectatione (1894) that Mary shared the atonement with Jesus, “dying with Him in her heart, pierced by the sword of sorrow.”

Pope Benedict XV’s 1918 apostolic letter, Inter Sodalicia, stated that Mary “redeemed the human race together with Christ” because of the extent to which she suffered with her Son.

More recently, in a March 30 general audience, Pope Benedict XVI referred to Mary’s role in salvation history, calling her a “partner of the redemption and mediatrix of grace, mother, advocate and queen.” And on his trip to Fatima last May, the Holy Father described Mary as “advocate and mediatrix of grace.” He invited the sick to “become redeemers in the Redeemer.”

Miravalle says the Pope got it right in both instances. “All of us are called to participate in the redemption of Jesus, and Mary does it uniquely,” he said.

Father Peter Damian Fehlner, a Mariologist and rector of Our Lady of Guadalupe Shrine in La Crosse, Wis., agrees. This is what St. Paul means in Colossians when he says he’s filling up what is lacking in Christ’s sufferings for the sake of the Church, Fr. Fehlner said.

“He doesn’t mean that Christ’s sufferings are inadequate, but they have to be applied in each of us. Together with that, we have a role of cooperation. Jesus is uniquely the redeemer and mediator, but this doesn’t mean that others don’t also participate,” he said.

Ecumenism

A second key objection to declaring Mary “Coredemptrix” is that such a dogma would be an obstacle to ecumenical relationships with other Christians.

However, in his petition to John Paul II in support of the fifth dogma, the late Cardinal John O’Connor stated that such a declaration would assist ecumenism by clarifying what Catholics believe and don’t believe about Mary, Miravalle said.

Russell, as a convert to Catholicism, said he doesn’t think a fifth dogma would alienate Protestants and harm prospects for reconciliation. “I take the opposite view: Don’t water down the faith, and Protestants will come,” he said.

Eastern Orthodox Christians, unlike Protestants, wouldn’t likely find the fifth dogma objectionable because of their own beliefs about Mary, Miravalle said.

“The doctrine of mediation is certainly very deep and very strong with the Eastern Orthodox. Their concept in the liturgy is more focused on Our Lady’s mediation than the Roman Rite.” However, he said, the Orthodox may have a problem with an infallible papal statement simply because they don’t recognize the pope’s teaching authority.

Regardless of whether the dogma is proclaimed in his lifetime, Miravalle said he believes the state of the world today calls for Mary’s powerful intercession. Our Lady’s titles, he said, are not simply honorary, but denote her actual roles.

“The more clearly we acknowledge her titles and functions,” he explained, “the more powerfully she can exercise those on our behalf.”

Judy Roberts is a Legatus Magazine staff writer.

Is Mary the ‘coredemptrix’?

Al Kresta explores some misconceptions about the possible fifth Marian dogma . . .

Al Kresta

While not her Son’s equal, Mary occupies a special place in salvation history, continuing to unite souls with the same Lord she agreed to bring into the world.

Let’s be clear. Jesus is the redeemer of humanity; Mary is not. Further, while “Mary, Coredemptrix” has been part of Catholic thought and devotion, it is not yet clear whether this title will receive dogmatic definition (Click here for a related story).

All admit, however, that this designation of Mary has long been part of the Church’s devotional life and was further developed during the pontificates of Popes Pius X, Pius XI and Blessed John Paul II. Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta, though no systematic theologian, wrote: “The papal definition of Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate will bring great graces to the Church.”

The first application of the word coredemptrix to Mary dates back to the 14th century. The concept, however, is already present in the writings of St. Irenaeus and St. Justin Martyr in the idea of the Second Eve. Just as Adam and Eve killed the life of God dwelling within them by disobedience, so too do the Last Adam and the New Eve restore that life by obedience to the will of God. Eve hands the instrument of death to Adam in the Garden; Mary hands Jesus the instrument, a body, that brings eternal life (Heb 10:10).

Unfortunately, in English coredemptrix sounds like cochair or cocaptain, implying that Jesus needed to split the office of Redeemer with someone else because the task of dying for the sins of the world was just a little too much for him. Rather, the “co” in coredemptrix refers to a “cooperator” or “collaborator” with the Redeemer. To say that Mary plays a singular role in salvation history is not to claim that she’s equal to the Redeemer. In the title “Coredemptrix,” we don’t claim that Mary is equal to Christ, but rather that she freely cooperates with Him in suffering for the sake of the gospel.

While a hot brick warms, it receives its warmth from something other than itself, some heat source like a furnace. While the furnace is the “warmer,” the brick mediates the furnace’s heat to others. In this sense the brick can be called a “co-warmer.”

Mary receives the title “Coredemptrix” because of her unique maternity. She holds the title for all of us since she is the mother of all Christians. Under her feet, the God of peace will crush Satan (Rom 16:20).

Al Kresta is CEO of Ave Maria Communications and host of Kresta in the Afternoon. This column is reprinted with permission from his book “Why Are Catholics So Concerned About Sin?” (St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2005).

St. Joseph

Feast Day: March 19

Canonized: Pre-Congregation

All that we know about St. Joseph — Mary’s husband and Jesus’ foster-father — comes directly from the gospels of Matthew and Luke. He was a carpenter (or stoneworker) in Nazareth.

There is nothing in the scriptures concerning either Joseph or Mary from the time the couple found Jesus (aged 12) in the temple until Our Lord began his public ministry 18 years later. The next time we hear anything about Jesus’ parents is at the wedding of Cana. Jesus, Mary and his disciples attended the wedding. The gospels don’t mention Joseph. It would have been improper for Mary to attend without Joseph, unless she was in fact widowed at the time.

Traditional sentiment says that Joseph died in the arms of Jesus and Mary sometime between the time that Jesus was 12 and the beginning of his public ministry. Saint Joseph was a faithful, hard-working, loving husband and father who courageously did everything necessary to protect his family from the vengeful King Herod.

Devotion to St. Joseph began in the Eastern Church, while in the Western or Latin Church, devotion to the saint was spread through the Servite Order, who celebrated St. Joseph’s feast day on March 19 as early as 1324. By 1621, Pope Gregory XV spread the devotion of St. Joseph throughout the Western Church.

In 1870, Blessed Pope Pius IX declared St. Joseph as the Patron Saint of the Universal Church. To counter the Soviet Union’s celebration of May Day (May 1) to celebrate the Communist revolution, Pope Pius XII established the feast of St. Joseph the Worker in 1955, honoring him as a laborer and encouraging those who earn their bread by the sweat of their brow. He is also Patron of a Happy Death.

This column is produced for Legatus by the Dead Theologians Society, a Catholic apostolate for high school-age teens and college-age young adults. On the web: deadtheologianssociety.com.